Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels

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ACAP Breeding Site No. 63. Kilauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, home of a Laysan Albatross population

The Kilauea Point National Wildlife Refuge (KPNWR) was established on the Hawaiian island of Kauai in 1985 to preserve its seabird breeding colonies.  It was expanded in 1988 to include Crater Hill and Mokolea Point.  The publically-accessible 82-ha refuge with its steep cliffs is home to the historic Daniel K. Inouye Kilauea Point Lighthouse which sits on the northernmost point of Kauai (click here).  The recently restored lighthouse was built in 1913 as a navigational aid for commercial shipping between Asia and Hawaii.  Half a million people have visited the refuge and its visitor centre and gift shop annually in past years, but recent budgetary constraints have restricted visits to five days a week.

Kilauea Point and its historic lighthouse


Looking east from the point along the rocky coastline, Photograph by Bob Dowd

Approximately 115 pairs of Near Threatened and ACAP-listed Laysan Albatrosses Phoebastria immutabilis breed within the wildlife refuge.  Their breeding site is not visible from the public viewing areas, although birds may be seen flying offshore.

Red-footed Boobies Sula sula, Red-tailed Phaethon rubricauda and White-tailed P. lepturus Tropicbirds and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus pacificus breed within the refuge, while Brown S. leucogaster Boobies and Great Frigatebirds Fregata minor are regular visitors (click here).  Endemic and Endangered Newell's Shearwaters P. newelli also breed within the refuge in small numbers in a non-public area.  The colony was initially created following introduction attempts utilizing cross-fostering of translocated chicks with Wedge-tails, and has expanded in recent years by the addition of a social-attraction project (click here).


"In 2013 there were eight confirmed breeding pairs of Newell’s Shearwaters within the KPNWR and six ultimately fledged a chick.  Auditory surveys carried out at the site by the Kauaʻi Endangered Seabird Recovery Project (KESRP) have also located several more potential breeding pairs and areas of ground-calling activity."

A fence around the perimeter of the refuge provides some protection to its breeding seabirds against the larger predators.  Additionally, the Nihoku (Crater Hill) Ecosystem Restoration Project aims to protect and restore the native environment of Nihoku within the wildlife refuge “through integration of science, natural resources management, and environmental education”.  A 728-m predator-proof fence is planned to enclose 3.1 ha to prepare the Nihoku site for translocatedNewell’s Shearwaters by keeping out feral cats, dogs and rats.  The site would also provide a safe haven for this species if Small Indian Mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus became established on the island (click here and here).

Steep cliffs at Kilauea Point

A fledging Laysan Albatross flies at sunrise with the lighthouse in the distance

Photograph by Bob Dowd

The island’s population of Laysan Albatrosses or Mōlī has been growing since the late 1970s when the first albatrosses returned to Kauai after an absence of many centuries.   With an island total of 271 pairs given for 2008 (click here), the remaining birds are scattered along a roughly 18-kilometre stretch of Kauai’s north shore, from Princeville (c. 40 pairs) to Anahola.  Sixty to eighty pairs attempt to breed on the south-west shore within the US Navy’s Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands (click here).  However, at this last locality the Laysan Albatrosses are a collision hazard to aircraft and so their eggs are removed each year; some of those deemed fertile by candling have been given to foster parents elsewhere on the island, including within the Kilauea Point National Wildlife Refuge, as a conservation measure (click here).

Laysan Albatrosses get together in Princeville on Kauai, photograph by Bob Dowd

With thanks to Bob Dowd and an anonymous donor for the photographs and Andre Rayne for information.

Selected Literature:

Anden Consulting 2013.  Draft Environmental Assessment Nihoku Ecosystem Restoration Project Kīlauea Point National Wildlife Refuge Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i September 2013.  Honolulu: Anden Consulting.  169 pp.

Byrd, G.V., Sincock, J.L., Telfer, T.C., Moriarty, D.I. & Brady, B.G. 1984.  A cross-fostering experiment with Newell's race of Manx Shearwater.  Journal of Wildlife Management 48: 163-168.

Arata, J.A., Sievert, P.R. & Naughton, M.B. 2009.  Status Assessment of Laysan and Black-footed Albatrosses, North Pacific Ocean, 1923-2000.  U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5131.  Reston: U.S. Geological Survey.

Naughton, M.B., Romano, M.D. & Zimmerman, T.S. 2007.  A Conservation Action Plan for Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) and Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis).  Version 1.0.

Pyle, R.L. & Pyle, P. 2009.  The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status.  Honolulu: B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

Vanderwerf, E.A. 2012.  Albatrosses.  In:  Hawaiian Bird Conservation Action Plan.  Honolulu: Pacific Rim Conservation.  11 pp.

Young, L.C., VanderWerf, E.A., Mitchell, C., Yuen, E., Miller, C.J., Smith, D.G. & Swenson, C. 2012.  The use of Predator Proof Fencing as a Management Tool in the Hawaiian Islands: a Case Study of Ka`ena Point Natural Area Reserve.  Technical Report No. 180.  Honolulu: The Hawai`i-Pacific Islands Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit & Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai`i.  82 pp.

John Cooper, ACAP Information Officer, 16 February 2014

The public want to see fewer feral cats: a Hawaiian study where they prey upon the endemic and threatened Hawaiian Petrels and Newell’s Shearwaters

Cheryl Lohr and Christopher Lepczyk (Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa) write in the journal Conservation Biology on the public’s views on feral cats Felis catus in Hawaii, where they are significant predators of Vulnerable Hawaiian Petrels Pterodroma sandwichensis and Endangered Newell’s Shearwaters Puffinus newelli.  Both of these burrowing species are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.  Trap-neuter-release (TNR) was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats.

The paper’s abstract follows:

“Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict.  Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management.  We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents.  Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned).  Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased.  The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents’ stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%).  The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect [sic] on desired abundance.  The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently.  Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats.  However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats.”

A feral cat gets caged, photograph by Jerome Legrand

Hawaiian Petrel, photograph by Andre Raine

Newell's Shearwater, photograph by Eric Vanderwerf

Click here for an NGO view of the study.


Lohr, C.A. & Lepczyk, C.A. 2013.  Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands.  Conservation Biology DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12201.

John Cooper, ACAP Information Officer, 15 February 2014

Looking a little odd for the camera: hybrid Black-Footed and Laysan Albatrosses illustrated

Cameron Rutt (Blooming Glen, Pennsylvania, USA) writes in the journal Western Birds on hybridization in the Black-Footed Phoebastria nigripes and Laysan P. immutabilis Albatrosses.  Nice pics, including of birds flying and on the sea.

The paper’s abstract follows:

“Although the Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Black-footed Albatrosses (P. nigripes) have been known to hybridize for more than a century, little has been published regarding plumage variation of the hybrid progeny.  During six months of field work on Laysan, Hawaii, I noted 13 possible hybrids (five presumed F1 hybrids, three possible F2 backcrosses with the Black-footed Albatross, and at least four possible F2 backcrosses with the Laysan Albatross).  Apparent F2 backcrosses with the Black-footed Albatross differ from it most noticeably in their black-and-white underwings and much more extensive white circling the face.  Apparent F2 backcrosses with the Laysan Albatross differ from that species most noticeably in their extensive gray smudging throughout the body and darker underwing coverts.  Apparent F2 backcrosses interbreed with the Black-footed Albatross, the first evidence of any hybrid pairing with that parental species.”

A Black-footed-Laysan Albatross hybrid, photograph by Lindsay Young


Rutt, C 2013.  Hybridization of the Black-Footed and Laysan Albatrosses.  Western Birds 44: 322-333.

John Cooper, ACAP Information Officer, 14 February 2014

Getting older, getting colder: male Wandering Albatrosses forage south as they age

Audrey Jaeger (Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, France) and colleagues, publishing in the journal Ecology, look at changes in the foraging zones utilized by Wandering Albatrosses Diomedea exulans as they age.

The paper’s abstract follows:

“Evidence of age-dependent changes in foraging behavior of free-ranging individuals is scarce, especially at older stages.  Using the isotopic niche as a proxy of the trophic niche during both the breeding (blood) and inter-nesting (feather) periods, we report here empirical evidence for age-, gender- and breeding status-dependent foraging ecology and examine its potential consequences on subsequent reproduction and survival in an extremely long-lived species, the wandering albatross.  Immature wandering albatrosses of both sexes forage in the subtropics (δ13C) and feed at the same trophic position (δ15N) than the adults.  In contrast to immature birds, adult females forage on average at northern latitudes than males, with both sexes feeding in the subtropics during the inter-nesting period, and males, not females, favouring subantartic [sic] waters during incubation.  In contrast to adult females, males showed a unique pattern among birds and mammals of a continuous change with age in their main feeding habitat by foraging progressively further south in colder waters during both the breeding and inter-nesting periods.  In males, foraging at higher latitudes (lower feather δ13C values) is associated with a lower probability to breed during the following years compared to other birds, but with no effect on their probability to survive.  Foraging in cold and windy waters may be linked to foraging impairment that might explain different life history trade-offs and lower investment in reproduction with age.  This key point requires further longitudinal investigations and/or studies examining foraging success and energy budget of birds feeding in different water masses.”

A Wandering Albatross forages in Antarctic waters, photograph by John Chardine

Click here to access a related publication by the CEBC team.


Jaeger, A., Goutte, A., Lecomte, V.J., Richard, P., Chastel, O., Barbraud, C., Weimerskirch, H. & Cherel, Y. In Press.  Age, sex and breeding status shape a complex foraging pattern in an extremely long-lived seabird.  Ecology

John Cooper, ACAP Information Officer, 13 February 2014

A Chilean workshop discusses the achievements and progress of the National Plan of Action for the Pink-footed Shearwater

The Vulnerable Pink-footed Shearwater Puffinus creatopus, a Chilean breeding endemic species, breeds on Mocha and Juan Fernández Islands off central Chile (click here).  The species is a transequatorial migrant reaching western North America including the Gulf of Alaska and southern Bering Sea.

International concern about the species is reflected in its recent listing as Threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife (COSEWIC) in Canada and as of Common Concern by the Canada/Mexico/U.S. Trilateral Committee.  This has triggered several site-specific Conservation Plans for the species. In Chile, the Corporación Nacional Forestal (National Forestry Corporation) developed a National Plan of Action for the Pink-footed Shearwater in 2007.

A workshop was held in Valparaíso in the Instituto de Fomento Pesquero (Fisheries Development Institute) on 15 January.  The workshop’s main goal was to assess the status of the Chilean National Plan of Action for the Pink-footed Shearwater and share the state of knowledge for the species by reviewing the main activities implemented for addressing threats both on land and at sea.

Attendants at the one-day workshop in the Instituto de Fomento Pesquero

The workshop was led by Marcelo García (Subsecretaría de Pesca y Acuicultura de Chile) and Jorge Azócar (Instituto de Fomento Pesquero) with the participation of Charif Tala and Sandra Diáz (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente de Chile), Moises Grimber, Javier Meza and Guillermo Reyes (Corporación Nacional Forestal), Peter Hodum, Valentina Colodro and Verónica Lopez (Oikonos), Holly Freifeld (American Bird Conservancy), Erin Hagen (Island Conservation), and Luis Cabezas (BirdLife Albatross Task Force Chile).

The discussions resulted in a schedule of activities which will have the dual purpose of developing the National Plan of Action based on the new scheme of the Chilean institutions and progressing the incorporation of the Pink-footed Shearwater into Annex 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (click here).

A second meeting is due to be held in April this year at the Instituto de Fomento Pesquero.

With thanks to Jorge Azócar, Chile for information and the photograph.

Selected References:

Commission for Environmental Cooperation 2005.  North American Conservation Action Plan: Pink-footed Shearwater.   Secretariat of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation.  vii + 49 pp.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 2004.  COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Pink-footed Shearwater.  Ottawa: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.  vii + 22 pp.

Environment Canada 2008.  Recovery strategy for the Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) and the Pink-footed shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) in Canada.  Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series.  Ottawa: Environment Canada.  vii + 46 pp.

Hinojosa S.A. & Hodum, P.J. 2008. Plan nacional para la conservación de la fardela de vientre blanco Puffinus creatopus Coues, 1864 en Chile.  Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF) and Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA), Chile.  34 pp.

Juan Pablo Seco Pon, ACAP South American News Correspondent, 12 February 2014

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